By John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)
The contribution of bacteriophages to the advance of recent biology can't be over priced but, sixty years after their discovery, they're as distant and mysterious to many scientists as they're to so much laymen. This publication endeavours to treatment the placement: an test has been made to supply, in effortlessly understandable shape, a nucleus of data necessary to somebody embarking at the learn of bacteriophages or utilizing them of their paintings for the 1st time. It exhibits the diversity of bacteriophage constitution and behavior; it illustrates the function of bacteriophage in molecular biology; it surveys the present cutting-edge; it offers the scientific and commercial elements. a few easy experimental systems are given in adequate element for the newbie to try them effectively. different, extra subtle seasoned cedures are offered with the intention to impart a sense of intimate truth with out spectacular the reader with technical complexity. i'm hoping that younger readers will forgive me for assuming that they've a few wisdom of micro organism, nucleic acids, antibodies and isotopes. Likewise i'd ask mature employees to excuse the omission of adored specialities. To have incorporated a lot of these, precious even though they're, may need placed this booklet past the re ach of the phage-novices for whom it really is meant. particular references, keep some of specific curiosity, were passed over. different books on bacteriophage v vi BACTERIOPHAGES supply them in abundance.
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Additional resources for Bacteriophages
Collodion and evaporated carbon films are less grainy but more fragile. Composite films, blending the advantages of two or all of these materials can be made. The phage suspension is applied either with a spray ('atomiser') or by putting a droplet on the filmed grid and removing the excess with a point of filter paper. The phage itself is essentially transparent to an electron beam and various techniques have been used to make them visible. The electron microscope operates in high vacuum. Hence whichever technique is used the specimen must be free from water and other volatiles and great care is necessary to mini mise distortion as they are removed.
In 11, where each successive copy is made from the preceding copy, the original is subject to minimum use but the copies will deteriorate as every blemish is cumulatively reproduced. the lineage, through six generations, of each replica of the parental genome. At each individual replication, shown as a bifurcation, the original is placed to the leit and the replica to the right. Open circles represent normal replicas, solid circles are erroneous replicas. Note the erroneous fraction: I. All copies are made from the original.
Milne and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Rothamsted) B. Drawing to show the plane of the section A - A. assembled round it when the virion was formed. Regarding the second point, one is tempted to think of those commercially available balls of string, where one can puH string endlessly from the centre without rotating the ball, and speculate on similarities. In even the best electron micrographs the head sheath or "membrane" of T2 appears to be smooth and structureless. 32 BACTERIOPHAGES In the light of modern knowledge of nucleic acid function this is mysterious.
Bacteriophages by John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)